How to Perform WiFi Network Security Assessment Using Aircrack-NG?

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WiFi is something we rely on every day, but have you ever considered how secure your WiFi really is? Before connecting to any free WiFi, it's wise to pause and think. Because there are sophisticated and freely available tools, attackers could use them easily to hack WiFi networks. Aircrack-NG is one of the popular tools that can be used for both offensive and defensive purposes. Since we are into helping security professionals we have published this blog post to educate both users and security professionals. We will show you how to perform a WiFi network security assessment using the Aircrack-NG tool. Aircrack-NG is a tool known for its ability to hack into WiFi networks, highlighting the need for caution. In the digital age, where connectivity is key, being mindful of…
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Getting Started with Threat Modeling Using OWASP Threat Dragon

Getting Started with Threat Modeling Using OWASP Threat Dragon

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In an era of increasing cyber threats, organizations must continuously evolve their security strategies and tools to stay ahead of sophisticated attackers. Threat modeling has emerged as an indispensable process for systematically evaluating system architectures, assets, and vulnerabilities to proactively identify and remediate risks. While threat modeling can be an arduous undertaking, the right frameworks and software tools can greatly simplify the process. One such tool is OWASP Threat Dragon, an intuitive, open-source threat modeling platform. In this post, we'll explore the value of threat modeling, provide an overview of Threat Dragon's capabilities, and demonstrate how to set up and use the tool to build effective threat models on both Windows and Linux systems. Whether you're new to threat modeling or looking to improve your existing workflows, this guide aims…
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A Step-by-Step Guide to Building Your First OSINT Program

A Step-by-Step Guide to Building Your First OSINT Program

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Open Source Intelligence (OSINT) is the collection and analysis of information from publicly available sources. As an essential method for gathering intelligence, OSINT plays a critical role in cyber threat intelligence, cybersecurity, penetration testing, national security, and law enforcement investigations. With the massive growth in digitally available data and the tools to collect and process this information, OSINT presents invaluable insights and intelligence. However, for an OSINT beginner, knowing where to start can be daunting. This blog serves as a step-by-step beginner's guide to building your first OSINT program. By the end, you will have a clear framework to gather, analyze, and operationalize open-source data to enhance security and decision making. What is OSINT and Why is it Important? OSINT or Open-Source Intelligence refers to publicly accessible information collected and used…
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How Can Developers Use OWASP to Write Secure Coding?

How Can Developers Use OWASP to Write Secure Coding?

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Application security breaches have become increasingly common, with over 14 mega-breaches impacting more than 1 million records in the last year alone. The average breach takes 9 months to identify and 75 more days to contain, racking up massive costs. In light of this threat landscape, secure coding is no longer optional – it’s imperative for developers to incorporate security practices into their design, coding, and testing processes. However, understanding where to start can be daunting. This is where OWASP comes into play. OWASP (Open Web Application Security Project) is an open-source project dedicated solely to application security awareness and guidance. Through its community-built resources, OWASP helps developers implement secure coding systematically. Let’s explore the key ways developers leverage OWASP to write more secure code. Grasping the Highest Risks The first step is understanding the most problematic risks. OWASP’s Top…
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Server-Side Request Forgery (SSRF) – The #10 Web Application Security Risk

Server-Side Request Forgery (SSRF) – The #10 Web Application Security Risk

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Server-side request forgery (SSRF) ranked as the #1 emerging web application security threat in a recent community survey, and for good reason. This attack allows malicious actors to abuse the implicit trust given to web applications to access internal systems and data that are typically protected by firewalls. CWEs Mapped 1 Max Incidence Rate 2.72% Avg Incidence Rate 2.72% Avg Weighted Exploit 8.28 Avg Weighted Impact 6.72 Max Coverage 67.72% Avg Coverage 67.72% Total Occurrences 9,503 Total CVEs 385 A10:2021 – Server-Side Request Forgery (SSRF) What is Server-Side Request Forgery (SSRF)? SSRF refers to an attack where a web application is tricked into making requests to internal systems or external sites on behalf of the attacker. This happens because the web app does not properly validate remote resource requests. For example, a web application may fetch data from a remote site to display on a page. If the destination site is not validated, an attacker can craft a request to access locally hosted systems behind the firewall like databases, internal API endpoints, etc. This allows the attacker to steal sensitive data, access internal resources, pivot to other attacks, or conduct reconnaissance on the victim’s infrastructure. SSRF Attack Example Let’s look at a real-world SSRF attack against Capital One in 2019 that compromised over 100 million customer records: The web application was hosted on Amazon Web Services (AWS) virtual machines. These VMs can make internal requests to AWS services using AWS identity and access management (IAM) keys. The attacker found an SSRF vulnerability in the web app. By exploiting this, they were able to steal the IAM keys and use them to access Capital One’s AWS S3 buckets containing sensitive customer data. This shows how a seemingly minor validation issue resulted in one of the largest data breaches in banking history, incurring massive fines and reputation damage. Preventing SSRF Vulnerabilities Here are some key SSRF prevention tips: Validate URLs – Scrutinize all URL inputs and remote resource requests. Reject problematic characters, domain restrictions, etc. Use whitelists – Only allow requests to permitted, internal domains instead of blacklists. Limit access – Restrict which services can interact with remote resources. Use service accounts with limited access. Monitor activity – Log and monitor remote resource requests to detect misuse. Though SSRF attacks are still relatively unknown, their growth potential cannot be ignored. As applications increasingly integrate with internal and external services, we must anticipate and prevent SSRF vulnerabilities through secure development practices.
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A Guide to the OWASP Projects for Developers

A Guide to the OWASP Projects for Developers

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Data breaches from vulnerable applications make frequent headlines. Developers must prioritize securing apps, but often don’t know where to start. The non-profit OWASP Foundation aims to help developers build apps more securely through open-source tools and guidelines. OWASP’s most popular offerings raise awareness of risks, provide developer guidelines, establish application security requirements, supply testing methodology and help benchmark internal security practices. These resources are interconnected to take you from identifying risks all the way through remediating them by improving development lifecycles. OWASP Top 10 Risks The OWASP Top 10 provides awareness for the application security risks facing organizations across industries. It helps identify the most critical vulnerabilities for web applications based on prevalence and impact. The OWASP Top 10 changes every few years based on data submitted and analyzed. The current list focuses…
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Vulnerable and Outdated Components – The #6 Web Application Security Risk

Vulnerable and Outdated Components – The #6 Web Application Security Risk

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Building applications with third-party components can accelerate development, but also introduces risks if those components contain vulnerabilities. Here’s how to manage software dependencies and keep components updated. Developers rely heavily on software components like libraries, frameworks, and packages to build feature-rich applications efficiently. However vulnerable and outdated components are a major risk. The recently released OWASP Top 10 2021 ranks using outdated or vulnerable components as the #6 security risk. Surveys also found it was developers’ #2 concern. This risk covers a very broad category – any third party code with potential issues. CWEs Mapped Max Incidence Rate 7.96% Avg Incidence Rate 8.77% Max Coverage 51.78% Avg Coverage 22.47% Avg Weighted Exploit 5.00 Avg Weighted Impact 5.00 Total Occurrences 30,457 Total CVEs 0 A06:2021 – Vulnerable and Outdated Components Real-World Impacts of Vulnerable Components Neglecting software dependencies has enabled major breaches, like the 2017 Equifax breach that exposed personal data of 147 million people. Analysis suggested an outdated Java framework was the root cause. Managing software dependencies protects against many types of potential weaknesses and exposures. Any of the OWASP Top 10 vulnerabilities could potentially exist in third party components. Avoiding and Mitigating Risks from Software Components The key is knowing exactly what components are used in your software, their origin, and version. Without that inventory, you cannot effectively maintain and secure app dependencies. Inventory Components Audit all third party code dependencies. Analyze them to remove unneeded bloatware. Less code means less surface area for vulnerabilities. Maintain a bill of materials detailing every component, including versions. Keep this updated as an accurate, live inventory. Prioritize Updates Actively monitor for vulnerabilities to determine potential impact. Watch for new CVEs in the National Vulnerability Database that affect project dependencies. When newer versions are available, update components promptly. Replace end-of-life software no longer getting maintainer security patches. For open source projects, consider contributing fixes. Automate Monitoring Use tools like OWASP Dependency Check to automatically scan dependencies and detect known vulnerable components, both in development and CI/CD pipeline. It supports Java/.NET/Python/Ruby/Node.js. Consider automating the inventory updates as well. Integrate software composition analysis into the software delivery lifecycle. For specific remediation advice, see the dependency management guidance in OWASP ASVS V1 and OWASP Testing Guide v5. Staying on top of software dependencies is crucial. Know your inventory, prioritize updates, and leverage automation. With discipline, vulnerable components can be avoided to reduce application risk.
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Insecure Design – The #4 Web Application Security Risk

Insecure Design – The #4 Web Application Security Risk

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Developing secure applications requires more than just coding practices. It needs a holistic approach that centers around secure design principles. Insecure design issues can lead to vulnerabilities that span all categories of risks like the OWASP Top 10. As the OWASP mentions, insecure design has the potential to impact all the top 10 application security risks identified by OWASP. CWEs Mapped 40 Max Incidence Rate 24.19% Avg Incidence Rate 3.00% Avg Weighted Exploit 6.46 Avg Weighted Impact 6.78 Max Coverage 77.25% Avg Coverage 42.51% Total Occurrences 262,407 Total CVEs 2,691 A04:2021 – Insecure Design What is Insecure Design? Insecure design refers to flaws in the initial architecture, specifications, and layout of an application’s functionality. Unlike coding bugs that can be fixed, design flaws cannot be coded out later. Some examples of insecure design patterns highlighted…
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Demystifying the OWASP Top 10: A Data-Driven List You Can Trust

Demystifying the OWASP Top 10: A Data-Driven List You Can Trust

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As a devsecops engineer, keeping on top of the most critical risks facing your web applications is challenging yet imperative. This is exactly why the OWASP Top 10 list has become an invaluable industry benchmark – it raises awareness of the most prevalent security weaknesses in a data-backed, easy to understand format. First released in 2003, the OWASP Top 10 has come a long way from expert opinion to rigorous data analysis. Each revision to the list, occurring every 2-3 years, utilizes increasingly robust processes to quantify real-world risks that you can trust as an accurate reflection of the top threats. The Exhaustive Effort Behind OWASP Top 10 Risk Analysis So what goes into formulating such a trusted benchmark? The process kicks off with a call across the security community for raw…
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Security Logging and Monitoring – The #9 Web Application Security Risk

Security Logging and Monitoring – The #9 Web Application Security Risk

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When a cyber attack happens, proper security logging and monitoring is essential to determine the entry point of the attack, the activities of the attacker within your systems, finding the source of the attack, how deeply the attackers managed to penetrate your systems, and mitigating the damage. This article explores why strong security logging and monitoring is a crucial defense against cyber threats. CWEs Mapped 242 Max Incidence Rate 9.23% Avg Incidence Rate 6.51% Avg Weighted Exploit 6.87 Avg Weighted Impact 4.99 Max Coverage 53.67% Avg Coverage 39.97% Total Occurrences 53,615 Total CVEs 242 A09:2021 – Security Logging and Monitoring Failures Why Security Logging and Monitoring Failures Make the OWASP Top 10 List? The OWASP Top 10 list outlines the most critical security risks to web applications. For the first time in 2021, security logging and monitoring failures made the list, coming in at number nine. This underscores how vital proper logging and monitoring is for security defenses. This category covers several potential logging issues: Insufficient logging (CWE-778) – Not capturing enough detail in logs to detect or investigate an attack. Omission of security-relevant information (CWE-223) – Logging does not include essential data to identify security events and risks. Insertion of sensitive data into logs (CWE-532) – Accidentally logging private user data that attackers can exploit. Log injection (CWE-117) – Attackers manipulate app logs to execute malicious code. Log forging (CWE-170) – Attackers falsify log data to cover their tracks. Failing in any of these areas leaves major vulnerabilities open to cyber threats. Real-World Impacts of Poor Logging Practices Without comprehensive activity logging and real-time monitoring, you may never even know your systems were compromised. Attackers can stealthily steal data, install backdoors, and cover their tracks. Even if you detect an intrusion, insufficient logging means you cannot effectively investigate the attack’s origin, methods, and impacts. Lack of detailed forensic data seriously hinders incident response and remediation. OWASP Recommendations for Security Logging and Monitoring OWASP provides extensive guidance on implementing robust logging and monitoring, including: Log essential forensic details like user IDs, timestamps, IP addresses, request parameters, etc. Synchronize system clocks for accurate forensic analysis. Never log sensitive data like credentials or financial details. Encrypt and protect log files to prevent tampering. Continuously monitor logs with tools like Splunk. Conduct frequent penetration testing to validate controls. The Bottom Line Robust security logging and monitoring serves as a critical early warning system and the foundation for investigating compromise incidents. No organization can afford logging gaps that allow attackers free reign inside their systems. Prioritizing comprehensive activity auditing and log monitoring is imperative for security success.
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